RCC accounts for 2% to 3% of all malignant diseases in adults. It is the seventh most common cancer in men and the ninth most common in women. In the United States, there are approximately 65,000 new cases each year and about 13,500 deaths annually.
Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders have the lowest incidence compared with American Indians/Alaskan natives, Hispanics, Caucasians, and African Americans. Globally, the highest rates observed in the Czech Republic and in North America.
It usually occurs between the sixth and eighth decades of life, with a median age of 65.
Inhaled tobacco smoke is the etiology of many cases of RCC, with a strong dose-dependent increase in risk associated with numbers of cigarettes smoked per day and a substantial reduction in risk for long-term former smokers. Increased body mass index (BMI) and elevated blood pressure independently increase the long-term risk of renal cell cancer in men. Other modifiable risk factors include exposure…
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Individuals with a family history of RCC have a 2.8-fold greater chance for developing Kidney cancer with multiple family kidney cancer genetic mutations.
RCCs tend to mimic other medical issues as some secrete hormones. Patients may present with high blood pressure, increased calcium and/or liver dysfunction. Symptoms from metastatic disease include bone pain, adenopathy, difficulty breathing and neurological issues.
Bloodwork with a CBC and CMP is recommended. In addition to a CT of the abdomen and pelvis with IV contrast, lung imaging with either CT or CXR should be performed.
In patients with decreased life expectancy or those considered to be at high risk during surgery, options include active surveillance and thermal ablation.
Yes. Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 95% of malignant neoplasms arising from the kidney. Recent advances in surgical and systemic therapies have significantly changed the management of RCC. High cure rates are seen with localized disease. Targeted therapies have extended the lives of the patients with advanced disease significantly.
Systemic therapy is recommended for patients with metastatic disease. Several systemic agents exist today that are non-curative and therefore require long-term sequential therapy with multiple agents and management of toxicity.